A Nintendo 2DS with firmware version between 6.x - 9.2
A Nintendo 3DS/XL with firmware version between 4.x - 9.2
A New Nintendo 3DS/XL with firmware version between 9.0 - 9.2
There's currently no public exploit for consoles with firmware above 9.2
These firmwares contain several kernel level exploits and will allow you to run unsigned code through a few different means. The method of enabling this varies by device and firmware version, but generally requires either a webkit exploit which is determined by the rest of the firmware version or game like Cubic Ninja or Zelda Oricana of Time.
To determine if the device can utilize the webkit exploit negating the need for a game, check the firmware version. Those ending with -7X or higher (9.0.0-7U for example) has a usable webkit exploit which requires only an active internet connection, no game is needed to setup or use the exploit.
The New 3DS has an exploit which requires a physical copy of the game Cubic Ninja, or Zelda Oricana of Time as well as a way to write a save to your game card (3DS with gateway loader installed or R4 savedongle). Zelda is exclusively a method developed by the gateway team but does not require a gateway card to complete the installation.
It should be noted that exiting system settings forces the 3DS to reboot, which disables the exploit until it is ran again.
It should be noted that if using a DS profile exploit like MSET (New and Old 3DS only) the profile will be reset and need to be reinstalled after running any DS titles. This can be accomplished by running an NDS file gateway includes in their package (if using an NDS ROM cart) or using the webkit exploit with internet connection and a specific PNG to reinstall should you be playing original NDS carts.
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